1. Sự Hình thành và Trật tự ngành của Các Doanh nghiệp Bảo hiểm Phi Nhân thọ

Bai viet nay la su dau tu nghiem tuc ve thoi gian cho viec nghien cuu boi canh hinh thanh thi truong bao hiem phi nhan tho – BHPNT, qua do, cung cho thay trat tu cua thi truong BHPNT o Viet nam nhu the nao. Bai viet cung se la tien de cho mot loat cac bai viet lien quan sap den – voi chu de nong cot la Marketing trong Nganh Bao Hiem cua Vietnam, ca nhan tho va PNT, tu nhung bai viet ve trat tu thi truong, vi the canh tranh (thong qua cac yeu to vi mo va vi mo cua thi truong), phan tich chien luoc va chien thuat marketing cua cac cong ty, v.v.
baohiem vn

Dau tien, thi truong BHPNT gom 29 cong ty bao hiem (khong tinh VinaRe) co the duoc chia thanh 2 nhom Doanh nghiep trai qua cac giai doan hinh thanh va phat trien nhu sau:

1. Doanh nghiep Viet nam (Local): 17 Cong ty
Xet ve lich su hinh thanh, thi truong ban dau bao gom nhung cong ty 100% von nha nuoc nhu Bao Viet, Bao Minh, PVI (Bao hiem Dau khi), PJICO (Bao hiem Xang dau), sau nay co BIC (truoc khi duoc co phan hoa, la cong ty con cua ngan hang BIDV), va Vietinsurance (so khai la lien doanh giua ngan hang Cong thuong – Incombank, ten cua cua Vietinbank, voi cong ty bao hiem Asia cua Singapore. Sau nay Asia rut khoi lien doanh va Vietinbank Insurance tro lai thanh cong ty con cua Vietinbank. Truoc nam 2000, Bao Long (Bao hiem Nha Rong) la cong ty bao hiem co phan dau tien (von chu dao van thuoc so huu cua nha nuoc), sau nay co PTI (Bao hiem Buu dien). Day la nhung doanh nghiep bao hiem dau tien cua cua thi truong bao hiem Viet nam, mang dam dau an cua cac doanh nghiep nha nuoc.
Tu nam 2005, voi su mo cua cua thi truong, mot lan song hinh thanh hang loat cac doanh nghiep bao hiem co phan. Mot loat cac doanh nghiep truc thuoc cong ty Me la cac doanh nghiep nha nuoc mo rong dau tu ngoai nganh: BIC la mot vi du tu cong ty me la ngan hang BIDV, Vietinbank Insurance, ABIC – Bao Nong cua ngan hang Agribank u, VNI (Bao hiem hang Khong), Bao Buu (Buu Chinh Vien Thong), SVIC (ngan hang SHB va tap doan Than Khoang san, gan nay Vinacomin rut von khoi SVIC). Dong thoi, trong vong chua den 10 nam, thi truong chung kien su ra doi cua cac cong ty co phan co von dau tu tu cac doanh nghiep tu nhan, co phan tu nhan, cac ca nhan lam cho thi truong them phong phu ve “chung loai”, trong so do phai ke den AAA, Vien Dong (VASS), Bao hiem Hung Vuong (HKI), Bao hiem Toan Cau (GIC), Bao hiem Quan Doi (mot cong ty thanh vien cua Ngan hang Quan Doi – MIB), Bao Tin (Bay gio doi thanh Phu Hung la mot lien doanh giua Bao Tin va cong ty Phu My Hung), va sau cung la GMIC – Cong ty bao hiem Thai Son.

Cac doanh nghiep xuat phat diem la nhung cong ty 100% von nha nuoc nhu Bao Viet, Bao Minh, PVI, PJICO, PTI van chiem the doc ton cua thi truong voi hon 70% thi phan, market share, ho co the manh tham nien thi truong, su dung ho tu cac tap doan, cong ty nha nuoc hon may chuc nam, va tat nhien, co mot thoi gian dai de tich luy kinh nghiem khai thac, do phu mang luoi phan phoi (cac chi nhanh, phong khai thac), va tat nhien la co so ha hang nhu nguon nhan luc co kinh nghiem va he thong cong nghe thong tin tot. Hon 20% thi phan duoc chia lai cho cac cong ty co phan con lai, la nhung cong ty su dung the manh nganh cua minh de khai thac bao hiem la chinh. Vi du, BIC tan dung triet de nguon khach hang tu BIDV, MIC, Vietinbank, ABIC cung nhu vay. VNI lay lai cac hop dong bao hiem truoc day ho duoc cac cong ty khac bao hiem nhu Bao Viet, Bao Minh (dieu nay cung khong la khi truoc day PVI ra doi, Bao Viet lan Bao Minh mat han nguon thu tu cac dich vu bao hiem dau khi), SVIC (khi Vinacomin chua rut von) duoc thanh lap cung voi muc dich “lay lai” khach hang co lien quan ngan hang SHB va nganh than khoang san. Nhom con lai la cac cong ty “tay khong bat giac” nhu AAA, GIC, HKI, Thai Son su dung quan he ca nhan la chinh va mot phan loi the kha khiem ton tu cac co dong de khai thac bao hiem. Mot it trong so nay co huong di kha chac che nhu AAA, so con lai da phan van rat vat va de co khach hang va mo rong thi truong.

2. Doanh nghiep co Von Dau Tu Nuoc Ngoai (Foreign-Invested): 12 Cong ty
Cay da cay de trong nhom nay phai ke den 4 cong ty lien doanh dau tien cua nganh bao hiem Viet nam, do la: VIA (la lien doanh cua Bao Viet, va 2 cong ty Bao hiem Nhat ban, trong do la Tokyo Marine and Fire Insurance), UIC (giua Bao Minh va 2 cong ty Bao hiem khac cua Nhat do, trong do MSIG sau nay duoc tac ra thanh mot cong ty bao hiem 100% von nuoc ngoai, va sau nay LG Insurance cua Han Quoc tham gia co phan trong lien doanh nay nham khai thac mang khach hang Han Quoc duoi dang fronting reinsurance – tai bao hiem nhiem y – ve cho cong ty Me cua ho). Day la 2 cong ty lien doanh dau tien vao nhung nam 90 cua the ky truoc. Lien doanh thu 3 duoc thanh lap khoang nam 2002 la Samsung Vina Insurnace , giua Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance va cong ty Tai Bao hiem Quoc Gia Viet nam – VinaRe. Nhu co de cap o tren, truoc day co lien doanh Asia-Incombank, sau nay Asia Insurance cua Singapore rut khoi lien doanh va cong ty tro thanh 100% von cua Vietinbank. Su ra doi cua 3 cong ty nay trong boi canh thi truong bat dau mo cua cho cac doanh nghiep nuoc ngoai buoc chan vao thi truong bao hiem Viet nam. Tuy nhien, vao thoi diem do, Chinh phu va Bo Tai Chinh van con de dat can nhac cho thi truong nay, nen viec mo rong thi truong chi moi o hinh thuc la cong ty lien doanh. Loi the cua 3 lien doanh nay la khai thac cac khach hang truyen thong cua ho (khach hang Nhat Ban, Han Quoc) va mo rong ra mot it thi truong phi truyen thong (Non-Japanese va Non-Korean accounts). Ngoai VIA, va UIC co chien luoc mo rong thi truong phi truyen thong (khach hang khac ngoai Nhat Ban), Samsung Vina nho loi the khai thac khach hang truyen thong hieu qua (Samsung Vina la cong ty Bao hiem Han quoc duy nhat tai Viet nam va  Huyndai Insurance va LG Insurance van chi hoat dong duoi danh nghia cua van phong dai dien) van tap trung chinh vao khach hang truyen thong cua minh. Truong hop mot lien doanh gan nhat la Phu Hung giua Bao Tin va cong ty Phu My Hung nhu da de cap o tren se tap trung vao loi the khach hang Dai Loan.

Lan song thu hai cho cuoc do bo vao thi truong Viet nam bat dau tu nhung nam 2005 voi su gia nhap cua mot loat cac cong ty bao hiem lon tren the gioi cung nhu thuoc loai cong ty bao hien lon nhat tai nuoc cua ho duoi hinh thuc cong ty bao hiem 100% von nuoc ngoai nhu AIG (sau nay doi ten thanh Chartis sau cuoc khung hoang tai chinh nam 2007-2008, va bay gio chuan bi lay lai ten ban dau la AIG), ACE, Liberty, Fubon Insurance, MSIG, Cathay Insurance, va hien tai Generali cung dang duoc can nhac cho cap giay phep hoat dong tai Viet Nam. AIG (Chartis), ACE voi loi the la nhung cong ty bao hiem lon cua My va the gioi co capacity tap trung vao khai thac mang khach hang doanh nghiep lon. Liberty truoc day co hai cong ty hoat dong song song la Liberty Vietnam (tap trung vao mang retail nhu bao hiem xe, con nguoi, nha tu nhan, va khach hang SME), va Liberty Mutual chuyen khai thac cac hoat dong doanh nghiep lon va toan cau. Gan day, nham tinh gon bo may hoat dong, Libert Mutual da sap nhat lai cung voi Liberty Vietnam. MSIG khi tach ra khoi lien doanh UIC van tap trung vao mang khach hang Nhat Ban va mot phan nho khach hang Dai Loan duoc mot co dong la Mingtai (Taiwan) mang ve, trong khi do Fubon va Cathay cung nhau chia se mieng banh la cac doanh nghiep Dai Loan tai Viet nam. Mot truong hop kha dac biet o khau hinh thanh do la cong ty bao hiem cua Uc: QBE Viet nam. Truoc day, QBE la mot partner trong lien doanh QBE-BIDV (la lien doanh giua QBE Australia va ngan hang Dau Tu Phat Trien Viet nam – BIDV). Sau do, QBE Australia mua lai cong ty Allianz Viet nam (duoc thanh lap vao giua thap nien dau cua nam 2000), va sau do tach ra khoi lien doanh QBE-BIDV (con BIDV Insurance doi thanh BIC bay gio). Cung voi AIG va ACE, QBE Viet nam co the manh khai thac khach hang phi truyen thong (ngoai cac doanh nghiep Uc), nho vao loi the ve chuyen mon va capacity cua minh.

Trat tu nganh duoc phan ra nhu sau: 17 cong ty trong nuoc chiem khoang 92% thi phan, trong khi toan bo doanh thu phi bao hiem cua 12 cong ty bao hiem co von dau tu nuoc ngoai chiem chi khoang 8%. Mot su bat can xung rat lon. Ve ly do cu the toi se co mot bai phan tich rieng. Noi chung, thi truong bao hiem Viet nam van la gameshow cua cac cong ty trong nuoc ma trong do chi rieng 4 dai gia bao hiem cua Viet nam, cung la 4 cong ty bao hiem dau tien, da chiem gan 70% thi phan. Cuoc choi cua toan thi truong van bi chi phoi chinh boi 4 cong ty nay, thi truong tai bao hiem ra nuoc ngoai, hoac tai bao hiem qua lai giua cac cong ty tai Viet nam van chu dao nam trong tay cua 4 dai gia nay, va tat nhien, la cua VinaRe (chi chuyen ve tai bao hiem).  Ly do co mot su ap dao ve trat tu cuoc choi va cung nhu su “that the” cua cac doanh nghiep bao hiem nuoc ngoai (mac du cac cong ty nuoc ngoai ve ly thuyet co nhieu the manh hon han cac doanh nghiep trong nuoc) se duoc de cap trong nhung bai viet khac.

3. Doanh nghiep Moi gioi Bao hiem: 9 cong ty
Noi den thi truong bao hiem PNT khong the khong nhac de cac cong ty moi gioi bao hiem, insurance broker. Thi truong hien tai thong tri boi 4 cong ty moi gioi bao hiem nuoc ngoai. Dung dau (va cung la cong ty dau tien tai Viet nam) la AON (cua My), ke tiep la Gras Savoye – Willis Viet nam (Phap), Marsh Viet nam (My), va sau cung la JLT – Jardine (Anh). Khong co mot so lieu thong ke cu the, nhung uoc tinh, doanh thu lan kha nang khai thac khach hang cua 4 cong ty nay chiem hon 98% thi truong moi gioi bao hiem cung nhu kha nang khai thac khach hang lon cua ho tu nhung hop dong toan cau (global accounts) hoac tu the manh chuyen mon cua ho chiem hon 80% khach hang la nhung doanh nghiep FDI tai Viet nam. Toi cung se co nhung bai phan tich chi tiet cho van de nay. Con lai la 5 cong ty “co ten ma chua co tuoi” hoat dong giong nhu san sau cua cac cong ty, ca nhan co tung giu nhung vi tri trong nganh, hoac co anh huong cua nganh thanh lap, bao gom: Viet Quoc, A Dong, Dai Viet, Cimeico, Sao Viet.
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Noi nhu mot can bo co tuoi va uy tin trong nganh: thi truong bao hiem (PNT) rang “dong” thi dong nhung chua “vui”. Dau nam nay, Bo trung BTC Vuong Dinh Hue de cap nhat De An Tai Cau Truc DNBH da duoc trinh Bo Chinh Tri va neu duoc phe chuan se tung buoc trien khai. Dau sao, day la mot y tuong vi mo, trat tu thi truong khong nam o cho cac doanh nghiep se duoc tai cau truc the nao, ma chinh la ho phai thuc su hoat dong ra sau cho dung tam cua mot doanh nghiep bao hiem. Chung ta se cung ban luan trong nhung bai viet tiep theo.

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